Category Archives: Steam Locomotive Classes of a Leisurely Era

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era – 1949 – Bulleid ‘Leader’ – Southern Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1949 – Bulleid ‘Leader’
Southern Railway

No.36001 in 1950

No.36001 in 1950

Although designed by O.V.Bulleid under the SR regime this remarkable locomotive did not actually appear until after Nationalisation. Nothing so revolutionary in steam locomotive design had been seen since the Midland Paget engine of 1908. It incorporated many novel features, amongst which may be mentioned the sleeve type valves, and the coupling of the six wheels comprising each bogie by means of a chain transmission instead of coupling rods.
The engine may be briefly described as an 0-6-6-0 single boiler articulated unit completely enclosed by an overall casing. There was a cab at either end with duplicated controls, and the fireman had to work amidships alongside the boiler, the longitudinal axis of which is offset to one side of the centre line of the engine. Herein lay one of the principal defects of the design, in that the poor fireman was expected to work under almost impossible conditions such as few would be prepared to tolerate in these days. In this connection it would probably been far more satisfactory if the engine had been constructed as an oil burner. Each bogie had a 3-cylinder engine driving the middle wheels of each 3-axle bogie.

Bulleid Leader Drawing

Bulleid Leader Drawing

Bulleid Leader Drawing

Diagram of the Leader locomotive. Drawn 1949 by British Railways, a nationalised (UK government) concern. Date 24 May 2006 (original upload date)  Source Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Oxyman using CommonsHelper.  Author Original uploader was Hellbus at en.wikipedia Permission  (Reusing this file)  PD-BRITISHGOV.
Licensing  This artistic work created by the United Kingdom Government is in the public domain.

It was planned initially to build five of these engines, but only three, Nos.36001-3, were actually constructed and only the first one ever steamed. After a few desultory trials the authorities seemed to lose interest and all three engines were quietly broken up after a very brief existence. The initial faults were many, as would be expected with such an unorthodox machine, but none was such as could not have been rectified with perseverance. Had the matter been pursued the engines might have proved a revolution in railway motive power and even done something to stem the tide of dieselisation which has since taken place.
It may now be regarded as a last, and as it turned out, abortive effort to prolong the use of steam propulsion as a factor of major importance in railway haulage.

Driving wheels – 5’ 1”, Cylinders (6) – 12¼”x 15”, Pressure – 280 lb., Tractive effort – 26350 lb., Weight – 100 tons (approx).

SR Leader 05Uploaded from http://www.semgonline.com/steam/leader_05.html (Southern Email Group) on 19 September 2006.  Official photograph of the Leader locomotive taken at Oxted. Taken on 22 November 1949 by British Railways, a nationalised (UK government) concern.(Source: Robertson, Kevin: The Leader Project (Hinckley: Ian Allan, 2007), 90) Date 19 September 2006 (original upload date) Source Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Oxyman using CommonsHelper. Author Original uploader was Old Moonraker at en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this file) PD-BRITISHGOV.
Licensing: This artistic work created by the United Kingdom Government is in the public domain.

 

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era 1945 – Bulleid ‘West Country’ Pacifics – Southern Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1945 – Bulleid ‘West Country’ Pacifics
Southern Railway

No.21C105, later Barnstaple, when new in 1945

No.21C105, later Barnstaple, when new in 1945

A slightly smaller edition of the ‘Merchant Navy’ class, embodying all the same features. 110 of these came out between 1945 and 1949, Nos.21C101-70, and 34071-34110 and 34091-34108 bore names associated with the West Country; most of the others had war-time commemorative names, chiefly air squadrons which took part in the Battle of Britain, which title is sometimes applies as a class name to these particular locomotives. Rebuilding of this class on the same lines as the ‘Merchant Navy’ commenced in 1957 and by 1959 thirty of them had been so treated.
Driving wheels – 6’ 2”, Cylinders (3) 16⅜”x 24”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 27715 lb., Weight 86 tons (as built), 90 tons (as rebuilt), BR classification – 7P5F.

No.34101 Hartland as rebuilt in 1960

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era 1941 – Bulleid ‘Merchant Navy’ Pacifics – Southern Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1941 – Bulleid ‘Merchant Navy’ Pacifics
Southern Railway

35026 as rebuilt

35026 as rebuilt

The first engine of the 4-6-2 type to run on Southern Railway metals appeared under conditions of some secrecy owing to war conditions during 1941. It was a 3-cylinder engine incorporating many novel features, including a thermic siphon, only once before used in this country, and a patent valve gear of O.V.Bulleid’s own design in which the primary drive is by means of chains enclosed in an oil bath. The novel design of wheels, reminiscent of Hackworth’s engines of early days may also be noted. It was fully streamlined, or air-smoothed, as it was referred to at the time. A new and somewhat peculiar numbering scheme was also introduced, in which the prefix 21C indicated the wheel arrangement – two pairs of bogie wheels, a trailing axle, with the C designating the three pairs of coupled wheels. The first engine, No.21C1 was named ‘Channel Packet’ and they were known as the ‘Merchant Navy’ class. Nos.21C2-10 all appeared in 1941-2, followed by Nos. 21C11-20 in 1944-5. Ten more came out after Nationalisation in 1948 with rational numbers, 35021-30, when the original batches were altered to 35001-20.

35003
These engines have done a great deal of heavy main line service on the SR, but the valve gear was not entirely satisfactory, and commencing with No.35013 in 1956 this was replaced by the Walschaert type and at the same time the streamlined casing was removed, with considerable improvement to the looks of the locomotives. Their original boxed-in appearance gave rise to their being somewhat irreverently described as ‘spam-cans’.
All of the class were rebuilt by 1959 and seemed likely to see a good many more years’ service.
Driving wheels – 6’ 2”, Cylinders (3) 18”x 24”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 33495 lb., Weight – 94 tons 15 cwt (as built), 97 tons 18 cwt (as rebuilt), BR classification – 8P.

35021

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era 1941 – Gresley Lightweight 2-6-2 – London & North Eastern Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1941 – Gresley Lightweight 2-6-2
London & North Eastern Railway

No.61701 as running in 1950

No.61701 as running in 1950

This was Sir Nigel Gresley’s last design, and consisted of two engines only, No.3401 ‘Bantam Cock’ and No.3402, unofficially known as ‘Bantam Hen’, although it never actually bore the name.
They were intended to become the prototypes of a new standard class of lighter general purpose engine to replace the aging ‘Atlantics’ and other types from the former GNR, GCR and the rest of the various LNER constituent companies, but owing to Sir Nigel’s untimely death no more were built. E.Thompson, who succeeded him, had different ideas on the subject, and introduced his B1 4-6-0 mixed traffic class for the same purpose. The two Gresley engines spent most of their time in Scotland, mainly on the West Highland lines, but as a non-standard class both were withdrawn in 1957. In 1946 they had become Nos.1700 and 1701, and later BR Nos. 61700-1.
Driving wheels – 5’ 8”, Cylinders (3) – 15”x 26”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 27420 lb., Weight – 70 tons 8 cwt., LNER classification – V4, BR classification – 4MT

Bantam Hen

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era – 1939 3-Cylinder 4-6-0 – Great Southern Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1939 3-Cylinder 4-6-0
Great Southern Railway

No.801 as running in 1948.

No.801 as running in 1948.

Three engines built in 1939 for working the heaviest expresses over the main line between Dublin and Cork. They were named after the Queens of Ireland, No.800 ‘Maeve’, 801 ‘Mocha’ and 802 ‘Tailte’, and were destined to be the last new conventional steam locomotives constructed for the GSR or Coras Iompair Eireann, as it later became. They were the most powerful express locomotives ever built for an Irish railway, and their remarkable similarity to the English rebuilt ‘Royal Scots’ will be noted.
Since dieselisation there has been little suitable work for them, and No.802 was broken up in 1957. As a matter of interest the dimensions of the LMS rebuilt ‘Royal Scots’ are shown for comparison.
GSR 800 class – Driving wheels – 6’ 7”, Cylinders (3) – 18½”x 28”, Pressure – 225 lb., Tractive effort – 33000 lb., Weight 84 tons
LMS rebuilt ‘Royal Scots’ – Driving wheels – 6’ 9”, Cylinders (3) – 18”x 28”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 33150 lb., Weight 83 tons

GSRLoco Spellerwebhttp://spellerweb.net

 

 

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era – 1937 ‘Coronation’ Pacifics – London Midland & Scottish Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1937 ‘Coronation’ Pacifics
London Midland & Scottish Railway

6229 Duchess of Hamilton as first built

6229 Duchess of Hamilton as first built

Following the success of the ‘Princess’ class Pacifics an improved design was put in hand, and five engines appeared in 1937 for working the newly inaugurated high-speed service between London and Glasgow. The heating surface, cylinders and piston valves were enlarged, and the driving wheel diameter increased to 6’ 9”, but the most striking change was the fully streamlined casing, which while impressive was also aesthetically extremely ugly. The engines were also painted a bright shade of blue with horizontal white bands to match the new train, which was similarly adorned. Nos.6225-9 which followed, were, however, painted in standard LMS maroon. The next batch, Nos.6230-4, were non-streamlined and presented a handsome appearance. Further additions to the class were Nos. 6235-48, all streamlined, and finally, between 1944 and 1948 there came Nos. 6249-57, without streamlining. No.6256 was named after its designer, Sir William Á. Stanier, F.R.S. This, and No.6257 had roller bearings. The outer casing was removed from all the streamlined engines, as it was found to be of little value at speeds below 90 mph or so, and was a nuisance to the maintenance staff as it rendered parts of the engine somewhat inaccessible. To combat the trouble of drifting steam over the cab, all the class was fitted with smoke deflectors, but strangely this was never found necessary with the earlier ‘Princess’ class.

6251 as first built

6251 as first built

Prior to the introduction of the ‘Coronation’ flier in July, 1937, No.6220 was tried out with a special train and attained 114 mph just south of |Crewe, thus beating the record of 113 mph at that time held by the LNER.
The ‘Coronation’ class have since shown themselves to be magnificent engines, not only in the realms of speed, but in their ability to handle very heavy expresses over the West Coast route. On test in 1939, No.6234, then newly fitted with a double chimney, worked a train of twenty coaches, 610 tons behind the tender, between Crewe and Carlisle, 102 miles in 118 minutes. This included of course the ascents of Shap and Beattock. All were still in service in 1959, as BR Nos. 46220-57, although beginning to be displaced by diesels on many of the top link workings.

TheRailwayMagazine-Nov1998-page21loco‘Duchess of Hamilton’ dressed up as ‘Coronation’

http://www.worldsfaircommunity.org

In January, 1939, No.6229 ‘Duchess of Hamilton’ was sent on exhibition to New York, and later made an extended tour over the USA railways. It was still there when the Second World War broke out, and was not returned to this country until 1943. During this time it had exchanged numbers and nameplates with No.6220 ‘Coronation’, but these were altered back on the engine’s return. This was a great mistake, as many American servicemen in this country, seeing the real 6220, were naturally under the erroneous impression that it was the same locomotive which had toured their own native land.

Duchess of Montrose
Driving wheels – 6’ 9”, Cylinders (4) – 16½”x 28”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 40000 lb., Weight – 105 tons 5 cwt., Nos. 46256-7 weighed 106 tons 8 cwt., LMS classification – 7P, BR classification – 8P

Duchess of Hamilton in the NRM 2014

Duchess of Hamilton in the NRM 2014

Railroad Glory Days – Glen Brewer G+

Railroad Glory Days – Glen Brewer

Sonoma-2

The lovely little Sonoma at the California State Railroad Museum is one of three locomotives built in 1876 by Baldwin Locomotive Works for the narrow gauge North Pacific Coast Railroad.

The NPC operated in the northern California counties of Marin and Sonoma that carried redwood lumber, local dairy and agricultural products, express and passengers. The NPC operated almost 93 mi (150 km) of track that extended from a pier at Sausalito (which connected the line via ferry to San Francisco) and operated northwest to Duncans Mills and Cazadero (also known as Ingrams).

The NPC became the North Shore Railroad (California) (NSR) on March 7, 1902. In 1907 the North Shore Railroad became part of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad (NWP). Southern portions of the line were standard gauged and electrified by the North Shore for suburban passenger service, though tracks north of Point Reyes Station remained 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge until abandonment in the late 1930s.(Wikipedia)

Via G+

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era – 1935 A4 Pacifics London & North Eastern Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1935 A4 Pacifics
London & North Eastern Railway

 

'Mallard' as originally built

‘Mallard’ as originally built

When the question of providing a high-speed service between London and Newcastle in the early 1930s was being mooted, the question of utilising a diesel-electric train was at one time seriously considered, but as this would have given neither the desired standard of comfort nor the required speed, the idea was dropped. It was decided to use conventional type of rolling stock with steam propulsion and a certain amount of streamlining to reduce wind pressure at the high speeds contemplated, as Sir Nigel Gresley assured the directors that he could produce an engine and train which would amply cover the requirements. His ‘Silver Link’, which appeared in 1935, was in effect an improved version of his already successful ‘Pacific’ design, but greatly altered in appearance. The now familiar wedge-shaped streamline casing was certainly startling at the time.
The first four engines, Nos.2509-12, soon showed themselves fully capable of doing all that was required, and in 1937 further examples were built for working the even more ambitious high speed non-stop ’Coronation’ between London and Edinburgh. Eventually the class consisted of 35 engines, Nos.2509-12, 4462-9, 4482-4500 and 4900-3. No.4498 was named ‘Sir Nigel Gresley’ after its designer.

Sir Nigel Gresley at Bridgnorth

Sir Nigel Gresley at Bridgnorth

The exploits of these remarkable engines is comparatively recent history and needs no repetition here, but the 126 mph speed attained by No.4468 ‘Mallard’ in July 1938 remains to this day a world record for steam which can be substantiated. A claim of 127 mph by a Pennsylvania ‘Atlantic’ in 1905 seems to have been based upon somewhat flimsy evidence and can hardly be accepted.

Union of South Africa - Shildon 2014

Union of South Africa – Shildon 2014

No.4469 was destroyed at York in 1842 in an air raid, but the remainder were renumbered 1-34 in 1946 although not in chronological order. They duly became BR 60001-34 and were still in service in 1959. In recent years the valances over the driving wheels have been cut away to give easier access to the motion, and most of them have now Kylchap blast pipes and double chimneys, which were originally fitted to Nos.4468 and 4901-3.

Sir Nigel Gresley leaving Highley

Sir Nigel Gresley leaving Highley

Driving wheels – 6’ 8”, Cylinders (3) – 18½”x 26”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 35455 lb., Weight – 103 tons, LNER classification – A4, BR classification – 8P6F

Mallard at Shildon - 2014

Mallard at Shildon – 2014

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era – 1934 – Class 5 – London Midland & Scottish Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1934 – Class 5
London Midland & Scottish Railway

No.4777 when new in 1947

No.4777 when new in 1947

One of the most successful designs ever built, these engines have been firm favourites with the operating staff ever since William Stanier first introduced them in 1934. A general purpose mixed traffic locomotive which can be used on almost any duty, reliable and easy on maintenance, is bound to establish itself quickly, and the class multiplied rapidly in consequence, replacing many older and some not-so-old types over all the wide ramifications of the LMS from Wick to Bournemouth.

44687
Nos.5000-5471 were built between 1934 and 1938, and after a hiatus owing to early war conditions the class was resumed in 1943 with 5472-99, 4800-99, then working backwards in batches until the complete series of 842 engines ran under BR numbers from 44658-45499, the final lot coming out in 1950. There are several varieties found in the class, consisting to a great extent of variations in the boiler mountings, and a few have double blast pipes and chimneys. No.44767 is unique in being fitted with Stephenson’s outside link motion instead of the usual Walschaert gear. The main variation occurs with engines 44738-57 which have Caprotti valve gear and with somewhat lower running plates and small splashers (absent in the standard design) present a noticeably different appearance, as do Nos.44686 and 44687, which have no running plates at all, to the great detriment of their looks.

44747
Apart from these 842 engines the type was perpetuated by BR in its 73000 class, totalling another 172 locomotives, which are the obvious descendants of the LMS engines.

44763
All of the class were still in service in 1959, and as far as could be seen there was no immediate likelihood of any withdrawals taking place in spite of the general widespread scrapping proceeding at an ever increasing rate in consequence of dieselisation and electrification. It seems reasonably certain that these useful engines may well be amongst the last to remain for as many more years as steam propulsion continues to find a place in the British Railways system, and they will undoubtedly have earned themselves the right to take their place amongst the ranks of the historic locomotive designs.

44767
Driving wheels – 6’ 0”, Cylinders – 18½”x 28”, Pressure 225lb., Tractive effort – 25455lb., Weight varies between 72 and 75 tons, LMS and BR classification 5.

44971Ayrshire

 

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era – 1933 – ‘Princess’ Pacifics London Midland & Scottish Railway

Steam Locomotives of a Leisurely Era
1933 – ‘Princess’ Pacifics
London Midland & Scottish Railway

Princess Louise in 1948 at first temporarily numbered M6206 and later 46206, in 1948

Princess Louise at first temporarily numbered M6206 and later 46206, in 1948

One of Mr. (later Sir) William Stanier’s first designs after his appointment as Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LMS. Stanier came from the Great Western, and introduced a number of features of that Company’s practice to the LMS for the first time, including the use of a taper boiler. His first two Pacifics, Nos. 6200 ‘The Princess Royal’ and 6201 ‘Princess Elizabeth, which appeared in 1933, were given thorough trials before any more were built, after which ten similar engines, Nos.6203-12 came out in 1935 with slight modifications following the experience gained with the first two engines, chief amongst these was an increase in the superheater heating surface. The four cylinders on this class has each its own independent set of Walschaert valve gear, but No.6205 later had its inside sets replaced by rocking levers actuated from the outside pair. As might have been expected, these locomotives soon proved themselves to be greatly superior to anything previously seen on the North Western main line. In 1936, in anticipation of the introduction of a high speed service between London and Glasgow, No.6201 was tested with a light load of 230 tons, seven coaches, and succeeded in covering the distance of 401½ miles, non-stop, in the remarkable time of 353½ minutes.

Maud
Concurrently with Nos. 6203-12, there appeared No.6202, which differed radically from its sisters. The boiler, wheels, etc., were identical, but in place of the normal cylinders and reciprocating motion it was propelled by turbines, a large one on the left hand side of the engine, for forward motion, and a smaller one on the right hand for reverse running. It was not the first turbine driven locomotive in this country, other experiments in this direction having been made in the 1920s, but it was undoubtedly the only successful turbine design to appear. Many snags were encountered and the engine spent a good proportion of its life in the works undergoing modifications, but nevertheless when it was in service it was a very good engine, and performed work equal to that of its orthodox sisters. It was a beautiful machine to see in action, with its soft purr and even torque, which resulted in almost complete absence of slipping, even with the heaviest load, a fault to which most ‘Pacifics’ designs are particularly prone.

Victoria
It ran as a turbine until 1952, when it was rebuilt with a normal 4-cylinder propulsion. Previously nameless, it now became ‘Princess Anne’, but its life under its new metamorphosis was exceedingly short, as it was involved in the disastrous Harrow accident in that year, and damaged beyond repair. All the other ‘Princesses, now BR Nos. 46200, 46201 and 46203-12, were in active service in 1959.

Anne Turbine
‘Princess’ class – Driving wheels – 6’ 6”, Cylinders – 16¼”x 28”, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort – 40285 lb., Weight – 104½ tons, BR classification – 8P
No.6202 – Driving wheels – 6’ 6”, Cylinders – N/A, Pressure – 250 lb., Tractive effort –N/A., Weight – 110½ tons, BR classification – N/A

Anne rebuilt